Of the Indian Civil Service ; and of the Middle Temple, Barrister-at-law, Meriber of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, and of the Asiatic. PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. Modern Indian History V.D. MAHAJAN S. CHAND MODERN INDIAN HISTORY a brief history of modern india. A HISTORY OF. INDIA. Second Edition. BURTON STEIN. Edited by David Arnold .. There is nothing new in the attempt to understand history as a whole. To.
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A History of India presents the grand sweep of Indian history from antiquity full of ancient temples, but no powerful ruler ever put up his headquarters there. Major Events in Indian History: BC. Mauryan Empire is founded by. Chandragupta. Maurya in Magadha after he defeats the. Nanda dynasty and. Readers can download the each of the notes as PDF for free using the 'print-pdf' option. Check Indian History notes category, if you want to read the complete.
The out of India theory is not widely accepted among Western scholars, and even in India itself it is far from universally accepted. One reason rests on linguistic evidence. The Sanskrit language has some linguistic features found only in it and not in other Indo-European languages.
Those same features are also found in the Dravidian languages of southern India. It is difficult to believe that Sanskrit could have been the original proto-Indo-European language and not have carried these linguistic characteristics on to even one other Indo-European language. The second major problem with the out of India theory lies in the absence of horses in the ancient Harappan region and sites.
Indo-Aryan tribes were nomadic, pastoral people who fought their frequent battles in chariots driven by horses. But Harappan civilization has no evidence of horses: There are no horses on its seals; no remains of horses—although there are domesticated cattle and donkeys—found at its sites even in the greater Indus region before B.
In the early 21st century, one enthusiastic proponent of the out of India theory attempted to improve the historical record by altering an image of a Harappan seal to make its bull or unicorn look like a horse Witzel and Farmer. Such efforts show that current controversies over Harappa and the Aryan invasion are as much struggles for identity and political legitimacy in present-day India as they are arguments about the historical past.
Sources: Bulliet, Lucy. Aryans and British India. New Delhi: Vistaar, , p. Accessed April 26, Although many Western and Indian scholars do think that the period from ca. Scholars now look at a combination of factors to account for the end of the urban Harappan civilization: the end of trade links with Mesopotamia ca. In the end there are many questions and speculations but few firm answers. Origins of the Aryans By B.
The hymns they composed eventually became the Rig-Veda, a sacred text in the modern Hindu religion, the oldest source for ancient Indian history and the only source of information about the origins and culture of the community that composed it. The Indo-Aryans who composed the Rig-Veda migrated into the subcontinent from the mountains to the north and west. Linguistics theorize that these peoples were originally part of a larger Indo-European speaking subgroup, the Indo-Iranians, once living on the steppe lands north and east of the Caspian Sea.
The Indo-Iranians migrated into south Central Asia where they then separated: one group, the Iranian Aryans, moved south onto the Iranian plateau; a second group, the Indo-Aryans, moved through the Afghan mountains into the Punjab region of the Indus plain.
The languages of both peoples—as seen in these ancient texts—are so similar linguists say they are like dialects of the same language. Both peoples referred to themselves as Aryans. Their religions also had many similarities: similar gods with similar names, similar legends about these gods, and similar modes of worshiping these gods.
Now historians are more likely to emphasize the gradualness of the process. Trade, regular and seasonal movements of seminomadic herding peoples, the migrations of tribal communities— these are all the means by which the Indo-Aryan peoples might have found their way into the subcontinent. By B. Archaeological evidence shows that many different tribes and cultures lived in the Indo-Iranian borderlands and in the northwestern mountains in the post-Harappan period — B.
But while artifacts found at numerous sites in this period show evidence of Central Asian influences and may suggest the presence of IndoIranian—speaking populations in the subcontinent, archaeologists have not linked any one of these cultures to the Indo-Aryan communities that composed the Rig-Veda. Excavators found evidence of camel and horse domestication at Pirak in Baluchistan from ca.
At a small nearby site, Sibri, and also at Pirak there were seals, not in the Harappan style, but in a style reminiscent of seals from early IndoEuropean sites in Central Asia. At the city of Quetta, an undated hoard of vessels and ornaments shows a style said to combine influences from Baluchistan, northern Iran, and Turkmenistan.
Artifacts from Cemetery H Culture, excavated at the city of Harappa, show evidence of a population who now occupied only a small section of that ancient city.
These people decorated their pottery with antelopes and peacocks and burned bones of their dead in clay urns. Many believe the record now shows evidence of several different Indo-Iranian—speaking communities at different places in the region, although as already indicated no evidence links any of these communities to the particular Indo-European—speaking population, that is the Indo-Aryans, whose religion and culture are seen in the Rig-Veda. Interestingly, human physical remains from excavations throughout this region all fall within the same range of physical types.
Aryan Society Whatever the means by which they made their way into the subcontinent, by B. Each of these four Vedas was itself a collection of liturgical materials—hymns, for instance, and ritual sayings—used in the performance of Vedic rites. Attached to each of the Vedas, in turn, were three types of later explanatory, interpretive, and sometimes speculative texts: 1 the Brahmanas were texts that explained the Vedic hymns and rituals; 2 the Aranyakas were texts that gave even more esoteric and secret interpretations of Vedic rituals; and 3 the Upanishads were texts that gave later and yet more speculative interpretations of the rituals and the cosmic order in which they were set.
The oldest of all the Vedas, the Rig-Veda, was probably composed by ca. The rest of the Vedas, including the most important early Upanishads, were composed by ca.
Their language was fixed and could not be altered or misremembered. These were all oral texts, not written down until well into the Christian era. To ensure their accuracy, the Brahman priests who were in charge of them developed an elaborate and precise method of memorization. The rest of Hindu religious scriptures were also considered important and sacred, but not in the same way as the Vedas. These smrti texts could be and were told and retold, embellished and added onto in any number of religious and secular contexts.
That text is a collection of more than 1, hymns addressed to various Vedic gods. It has survived in an ancient and difficult version of the Sanskrit language called Vedic Sanskrit , and even today many of its passages remain obscure and unintelligible. It is, nonetheless, the only source of information about the ancient peoples whose worldviews, beliefs, and practices would develop into the religion of a majority of Indian people.
The society described in the hymns of the Rig-Veda was nomadic and pastoral. Indo-Aryan society was divided into three classes: kings, priests, and commoners. Aryan life centered on cattle, horses, and warfare. Indo-Aryans protected their herds and stole cows from others through warfare.
The hymns also reveal Indo-Aryan society as pragmatic and utilitarian. Hymns ask the gods for wealth, cattle, progeny, prosperity, and health. The strong naturalistic elements in the Rig-Veda are represented by gods such as Agni fire and Surya the Sun , each of whom is portrayed as the natural element itself. The ritual of sacrifice, the focus of the hymns, is not only a means of flattering the gods and gaining gifts from them; it is also an act necessary to continue the world order.
The hymns are not mystical or devotional in the fashion of later Hinduism. Nor do they mention key Hindu terms—such as karma fate , dharma duty , or reincarnation.
The four classes varnas so important in later Indian society appear only in one late Rig-Vedic hymn. These concepts and categories, central to the Hindu religion and the social system in which it was embedded, only developed later, as the Indo-Aryans abandoned their nomadic, pastoral ways and settled down as farmers on the rich Gangetic plains. For many, this is the India of their dreams. Honest, politically free and committed bureaucracy is a dream of many, especially who are into social activism, whereas quick justice and judicial activism are seen as an end and not as means by many towards the 'India of my dreams'.
Defence Indian Defence capability is ranked 4th in the world with the 2nd largest army at its command. In India, defence forces have grown from strength to strength after every major armed conflict and military operation in the past 60 years. In the current geopolitical context, India is faced with a complex array of internal as well as external security threats and the Indian Armed Forces are well-equipped to deal with them.
India spends huge amount to enhance its military capabilities. India is the world's largest arms importer due to a stagnant defence-industrial base DIB , which forces the armed forces to acquire 65 per cent of their requirements from abroad.
The Modi government has enhanced Foreign Direct Investment in defence sector from 26 per cent to 49 per cent and the move aims at increasing domestic production and less dependence on imports. However, defence sector needs structural reforms to increase domestic production. Elections Fair and free elections are the backbone of our democracy. From Lok Sabha to local bodies, elections have become a part of our life and a strong tool for empowerment.
But Lok Sabha elections was different from the previous ones in more that one ways. After a very long period over 30 years a single party got majority on its own. The elections were personality centric. The elections clearly manifested that youth was no longer ready to digest the blunders done by the previous UPA regimes. Modi assumed the mantle of power and right now, as things seem, we are seeing a rather unconventional mode of politics and governance.
The year was something that triggered a series of changes in India and the trickle effect will possibly cover the entire to settle down and give a final picture.
A changed political landscape would result in two important aspects in times to come. Indian politics was, since independence, dominated by vote banks politics based on religion, caste and other class factors and forces.
Smart politicians have realised the change mind set of the youth and the graffiti is on the wall! Indian Economy With the new government taking over this year, India seems to be back on course to getting back to the growth rates seen earlier in the best years. By any standard, this is indeed a smart recovery. With the new government demonstrating serious intent in reforming the economy by initiating steps towards reforms in land acquisition laws, labour laws, introducing GST, increasing FDI in Insurance, Railways, Construction, Infrastructure and Defence.
Sensitive issues like deregulation of diesel have been initiated, while the coal and mining sector is being given an impetus through fresh auctions.
Policies pertaining to clearances from the Environment and Forests are being revised to ensure faster clearances of projects. The fall in global commodity prices, especially crude oil has helped India improve its Balance of Payments situation. The domestic financial investors have also shown marked improvement in sentiment with mutual funds that were net sellers in the last couple of years having turned net buyers this year. Mutual funds alone have pumped in 25, crore in equities this year.
From , the economy saw its lowest GDP growth rate of 4. The best years saw growth rates touch 9. Industrial Growth However, the industrial growth rates have shown a different trend. The highest growth rate of During the recession years, the industrial growth rate plummeted to 0. The industrial growth rate has been slow to post a recovery but current signs confirm that will be better than the previous two years.
The agriculture and allied sectors have been erratic in growth rates and the period in question has not shown consistent growth or decline, in fact there have been sharp growth and decline in respective years. The year saw a negative growth rate of The very next year saw the best year posting 9.
Similarly, saw growth rate dip to 1. Agriculture and allied sectors have seen increasing interest from corporates who now see a growth opportunity in the sector, with the government adopting a more open policy to private sector investment in modernizing the sector. With modernization and increased credit flow to the sector, growth rates are likely to continue to improve in the next few years. One sector which has been consistently growing at a rapid pace is the services sector.
India is also witnessing rising investment in health services, clinical and pharmaceutical research, education and skill development.
The share of the services sector in the overall economy continues to remain high. The best years witnessed On the fiscal side, the Gross Domestic Savings touched its highest level in at The combined fiscal deficit centre and state had its best year in when it reached However, with the RBI adopting measures to curb the deficit, , the deficit stood at The inflation WPI average touched its highest point in at 9. The CPI average touched it's highest at While the weakening of the rupee was mostly welcomed by the exporters, especially the IT sector, the same hit the industry hard that was directly or indirectly impacted by it.
With the global slowdown, the economy was strained with almost all infrastructure related activities coming to a standstill in the years His initial steps have been to control inflation and bring down the trade deficit. The curbs on gold import helped to bring down the CAD but by later , the Governor is under pressure to bring down interest rates to boost investment. According to the Census Data , the population stood at The population has risen by In absolute terms, the population has risen by Interestingly, the female population has registered a higher growth rate at The children population count stood at The male child years has increased between and , while the female child in the same age group has decreased marginally.
The density of population per square km in India is persons. Delhi recorded the highest people density amongst all cities at Arunachal Pradesh had the lowest density per square km.
Energy In a path breaking initiative, The Prime Minister has taken steps to introduce a power sharing grid amongst the SAARC countries that will ensure that the surplus power generated in one country is distributed to another country based on need. India already has power buying agreements with Bhutan and Bangladesh.
India is expected to have a demand of 2 trillion units by Solar, wind and Hydro are major areas that are expected to witness major investments in a bid to shore up clean energy generation. Far from being an settlements in India. Using archaeological evidence Jha advanced civilisation, the Indo-Aryans were semi-nomadic provides a snapshot view of settlement and society during pastoralists whose only technological innovations were these periods, in which the major innovation would be the chariot and bronze technology, and were known for the beginnings of metalworking originally just copper to their destruction of towns and cities.
Originally the Vedic make tools. These Chalcolithic settlements were primarily peoples were cattle raisers who practised a mixed pastoral rural in nature, held domesticated animals, and had begun and agricultural economy. Jha notes that while cattle formed cultivating cereal crops. Jha emphasises that Chalcolithic the basis of wealth for the Vedic peoples, they were not yet settlements in India have an extremely long chronological considered sacred and were regularly sacrificed or used as timespan that in some cases overlays or post-dates the more food.
Vedic political and administrative traditions were quite technologically advanced Harappan civilisation. From here, limited. Kingship appears to have mostly been equal to a Jha shifts towards greater detail as he discusses the Indus tribal chieftainship, while tribal assemblies acted as a check River or Harappan civilisation.
He notes that while more on their power. Initially society in the period structured than 2, seals have been found bearing Harappan script on itself around a three-way division into warriors Kshatriya , them, the script itself has not been successfully deciphered claiming to have deciphered the script.
As Vedic Jha moves from religious to political developments conquests expanded into Northern India a fourth class, with this chapter, discussing the growth of the Majanapadas the Shudras, appears to have emerged from the conquered large states who dominated 6th- 4th century BC India.
While tribes incorporated. These social divisions would later be Jha notes that even at the end of the Later Vedic period given religious sanction, laying the foundation for the historians can begin to see a shift from tribal organisation practise of Varna or caste distinctions.
While the initial Vedic to territorial state, this process rapid accelerated after the 6th settlements were in the Indus river valley, by the later Vedic century BC.
With the shift east the North India. Last and most important of the Magadhan Vedic economy began its move from one primarily pastoral, dynasties were the Nanda, who are sometimes credited to one primarily agricultural in origin. Agricultural surplus with overthrowing all other contemporary royal houses in term prompted an expansion in crafts, technologies, and and incorporating them into the Magadhan state. Jha urbanisation. As Vedic life became more settled the social emphasises the favourable geographic and climatic position norms associated with the Varna system became more of Magadha, along with the rich mineral deposits as a key crystallised, strengthening the power of the Brahmana and factor in their success.
Nanda expansion coincided with Kshatriya classes at the expense of the lower orders. Ultimately, development. Jha then briefly looks at a curious feature of early for diversification in arts and crafts. At the same time, Jha Indian statehood, the republics found particularly in the highlights the fact that the rise of a new wealthy class had long Panjab and Himalayan foothills.
Emphasising the corporate lasting effects on Vedic society, causing a rise in inequalities nature of these states Jha sees them less as republics, and to develop. These developments also helped to end tribal more as undemocratic oligarchies. Conflict between Vedic religious practises, with their to the Mauryan Empire, the first and largest of the Indian emphasis on animal sacrifices particularly cattle , and the empires.
While Jha provides a sketch overview of the new social groups were responsible in part for the emergence reigns of Chandragupta, Bindusara, and Asoka Maurya, his of new religious and philosophical ideas during this period. He Moving from economics to religion Jha briefly sketches the emphasises that Mauryan political supremacy was obtained beginnings of the two major alternative sects to appear out and maintained due to the enormous army, given as , of 6th century India: Jainism and Buddhism.
Turning first to , in sources, the Mauryan emperors were able to field. He notes that the concept of into a number of provinces carefully regulated at national, God is nearly irrelevant to Jainism. Instead, the sole focus of provincial, and local levels of government. With the need life is the purification of the soul through fasting, rigorous to support such as large army the Mauryan state became practise of non-violence, truth etc.
Jains were not only incredibly centralised, taking control of and regulating many forbidden to wage war, but also to farm, something that of the crafts and industries to make a profit. Jha looks at would lead Jains to become involved in trade and mercantile how the main Indian source for the period, Kautilya, seems endeavours.
Also noted is the persistent tension between the salvation, regardless of social origin or birth. From here Vedic, Jain, and Buddhist sects, a fact Jha sees as a possible common features of Jainism and Buddhism are discussed, reason for Asoka Maurya to promote his policy of dhamma. Buddhism Mauryan population, including measures relating to social in particular with its moderate emphasis on ahimasa non- welfare.
While neither religion sought to the local language of the province. In his examination of the abolish the Varna caste system, they adapted a much more decline and fall of the Mauryan Empire Jha puts most of his liberal attitude towards the lower orders, and certainly emphasis on economic reasons for the collapse, rather than did not proscribe their ability to gain knowledge, as the military or political reasons.
Brahmana were wont to do. He explores the complicated political Jha notes that the period also saw a decline in long-distance history of the period first by looking at the immediate trade, particularly with the West. In turn this led to a successors to the Maurya, the Shunga, followed briefly by shrinking of the coastal towns, and a reduction in population a succession of tribal states. However, the most important movement within the Gupta Empire.
While urban centres political development Jha sees in the period is the repeated did not disappear altogether, their size and wealth shrunk movement of people across the Hindu Kush mountains into considerably.
The Varna caste system seems to have Northwest India, as it promoted active interaction with the expanded dramatically with a massive increase in Shudra and outside world and presented new cultural elements that untouchable caste members. Overall Jha sees the Gupta period of Bactria, who overran much of Northwest India in the as one primarily of decline, and a transition to the primarily early 2nd century BC.
Followed by the Saka, and the Indo- feudal period of the 6th — 12th centuries. Jha takes especial Parthians, the most important movement was that of the aim at Indian historians who see the Gupta period as a sort of Kushana in the early 1st century AD.
Under rulers such as Pax Guptana of Indian history, a Hindu renaissance. Instead Kadphises and Kanishka the Kushana incorporated not of a renaissance, the Gupta period was one of economic only Northwest India, but most of the Gangetic valley, decline, social stratification, and political decentralisation.