Contents
  1. Chapter 10 Testing Concepts.pdf - Testing Concepts Math 102...
  2. ** Testing concepts for beginners pdf || - Selenium
  3. Manual Testing Concepts Material | Software Tester PDF
  4. Manual Testing Tutorial for Beginners: Concepts, Types, Tool

glametesaspo.tk or this tutorial may not be redistributed or reproduced in any way, .. This chapter describes the basic definition and concepts of Testing from . 5. What is software? Why should it be tested? Software Testing Levels, Types, Terms and Definitions. In this way, it uses the same concept of partitions as. Testing is the process of evaluating a system or its component(s) with the intent This tutorial will give you a basic understanding on software testing, its types.

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Testing Concepts Pdf

White Box Testing techniques are also known as Open Box Testing / Glass Box. Testing / Clear Box This model defines the conceptual mapping in between. PDF | On Jul 1, , Ali Mili and others published Software Testing: Concepts and Operations. "This course teaches you basic to advance level concept in software testing. Learn to jump-start your testing career ".

View the pdf tutorials about UAT User Acceptance Testing can be done by in-house testing in which volunteers or paid test subjects use the software or, more typically for widely-distributed software, by making the test version available for downloading and free trial over the Web. The experiences of the early users are forwarded back to the developers who make final changes before releasing the software commercially. During UAT, actual software users test the software to make sure it can handle required tasks in real-world scenarios, according to specifications. UAT is one of the final and critical software project procedures that must occur before newly developed software is rolled out to the market. This is done by selecting some people from the potential users of the software and asking them to use the software before it is finally released for use. While using the software, these selected users will take note of the flaws in the software for further modification and correction before the final release. This affords the users the opportunity to interact well with the software and see what the features are and which of the features are absent or malfunctioning. They also pay attention to sections of the software that are disconnected from the others and may lead to a lack of meaningful communication between the different sections of the software. In essence, some functionalities of the software will be tested. This is specifically testing the software extensively by a couple of customers who use the software in their environment. After the testing, they will provide feedback that will be used to improve the product.

Beta Testing is a formal type of software testing which is carried out by the customer. It is performed in the Real Environment before releasing the product to the market for the actual end users. Beta testing is carried out to ensure that there are no major failures in the software or product and it satisfies the business requirements from an end-user perspective.

Beta testing is successful when the customer accepts the software. Usually, this testing is typically done by end-users or others. It is the final testing done before releasing an application for commercial purpose. Usually, the Beta version of the software or product released is limited to a certain number of users in a specific area. So end user actually uses the software and shares the feedback to the company. Company then takes necessary action before releasing the software to the worldwide.

Whenever an input or data is entered on front-end application, it stores in the database and the testing of such database is known as Database Testing or Backend testing. Database testing involves testing of table structure, schema, stored procedure, data structure and so on. In back-end testing GUI is not involved, testers are directly connected to the database with proper access and testers can easily verify data by running a few queries on the database.

There can be issues identified like data loss, deadlock, data corruption etc during this back-end testing and these issues are critical to fixing before the system goes live into the production environment.

It is a subtype of Compatibility Testing which is explained below and is performed by the testing team. Browser Compatibility Testing is performed for web applications and it ensures that the software can run with the combination of different browser and operating system.

This type of testing also validates whether web application runs on all versions of all browsers or not. It is a type of testing which validates whether the newly developed software or updated software works well with older version of the environment or not.

Backward Compatibility Testing checks whether the new version of the software works properly with file format created by older version of the software; it also works well with data tables, data files, data structure created by older version of that software. If any of the software is updated then it should work well on top of the previous version of that software. Internal system design is not considered in this type of testing. Tests are based on the requirements and functionality. Detailed information about the advantages, disadvantages, and types of Black box testing can be seen here.

Chapter 10 Testing Concepts.pdf - Testing Concepts Math 102...

Boundary value Testing is performed for checking if defects exist at boundary values. Boundary value testing is used for testing a different range of numbers. There is an upper and lower boundary for each range and testing is performed on these boundary values. If testing requires a test range of numbers from 1 to then Boundary Value Testing is performed on values at 0, 1, 2, , and It is a type of white box testing and is carried out during unit testing.

Branch Testing, the name itself suggests that the code is tested thoroughly by traversing at every branch. Comparison of a product's strength and weaknesses with its previous versions or other similar products is termed as Comparison Testing.

It is a testing type in which it validates how software behaves and runs in a different environment, web servers, hardware, and network environment. Compatibility testing ensures that software can run on a different configuration, different database, different browsers, and their versions.

Compatibility testing is performed by the testing team. It is mostly performed by developers after the completion of unit testing. Component Testing involves testing of multiple functionalities as a single code and its objective is to identify if any defect exists after connecting those multiple functionalities with each other. Similar to system testing, End-to-end testing involves testing of a complete application environment in a situation that mimics real-world use, such as interacting with a database, using network communications, or interacting with other hardware, applications, or systems if appropriate.

It is a testing technique and a type of Black Box Testing. During this equivalence partitioning , a set of group is selected and a few values or numbers are picked up for testing. It is understood that all values from that group generate the same output. The aim of this testing is to remove redundant test cases within a specific group which generates the same output but not any defect.

So the Equivalence Partitioning for this testing is: It means real-time testing. Example testing includes the real-time scenario, it also involves the scenarios based on the experience of the testers. Exploratory Testing is informal testing performed by the testing team. The objective of this testing is to explore the application and looking for defects that exist in the application.

Sometimes it may happen that during this testing major defect discovered can even cause system failure. During exploratory testing, it is advisable to keep a track of what flow you have tested and what activity you did before the start of the specific flow. An exploratory testing technique is performed without documentation and test cases.

This type of testing ignores the internal parts and focuses only on the output to check if it is as per the requirement or not. It is a Black-box type testing geared to the functional requirements of an application. For detailed information about Functional Testing click here. The GUI testing includes the size of the buttons and input field present on the screen, alignment of all text, tables and content in the tables.

It also validates the menu of the application, after selecting different menu and menu items, it validates that the page does not fluctuate and the alignment remains same after hovering the mouse on the menu or sub-menu.

Gorilla Testing is a testing type performed by a tester and sometimes by developer the as well. In Gorilla Testing, one module or the functionality in the module is tested thoroughly and heavily. The objective of this testing is to check the robustness of the application. The objective of Happy Path Testing is to test an application successfully on a positive flow. It does not look for negative or error conditions. The focus is only on the valid and positive inputs through which application generates the expected output.

Incremental Integration Testing is a Bottom-up approach for testing i. Application functionality and modules should be independent enough to test separately. This is done by programmers or by testers. Testing of all integrated modules to verify the combined functionality after integration is termed as Integration Testing.

Modules are typically code modules, individual applications, client and server applications on a network, etc. It is a type of non-functional testing and the objective of Load testing is to check how much of load or maximum workload a system can handle without any performance degradation. If any of the software is updated then it should work well on top of the previous version of that software. Tests are based on the requirements and functionality. Detailed information about the advantages, disadvantages, and types of Black box testing can be seen here.

Boundary value Testing is performed for checking if defects exist at boundary values. Boundary value testing is used for testing a different range of numbers.

There is an upper and lower boundary for each range and testing is performed on these boundary values. If testing requires a test range of numbers from 1 to then Boundary Value Testing is performed on values at 0, 1, 2, , and Branch Testing, the name itself suggests that the code is tested thoroughly by traversing at every branch. Compatibility testing ensures that software can run on a different configuration, different database, different browsers, and their versions.

Compatibility testing is performed by the testing team.

Component Testing involves testing of multiple functionalities as a single code and its objective is to identify if any defect exists after connecting those multiple functionalities with each other. During this equivalence partitioning , a set of group is selected and a few values or numbers are picked up for testing.

It is understood that all values from that group generate the same output. The aim of this testing is to remove redundant test cases within a specific group which generates the same output but not any defect. So the Equivalence Partitioning for this testing is: to -1, 0, and 1 to Example testing includes the real-time scenario, it also involves the scenarios based on the experience of the testers. The objective of this testing is to explore the application and looking for defects that exist in the application.

Sometimes it may happen that during this testing major defect discovered can even cause system failure. During exploratory testing, it is advisable to keep a track of what flow you have tested and what activity you did before the start of the specific flow. An exploratory testing technique is performed without documentation and test cases. It is a Black-box type testing geared to the functional requirements of an application.

For detailed information about Functional Testing click here. The GUI testing includes the size of the buttons and input field present on the screen, alignment of all text, tables and content in the tables. It also validates the menu of the application, after selecting different menu and menu items, it validates that the page does not fluctuate and the alignment remains same after hovering the mouse on the menu or sub-menu.

** Testing concepts for beginners pdf || - Selenium

In Gorilla Testing, one module or the functionality in the module is tested thoroughly and heavily. The objective of this testing is to check the robustness of the application.

It does not look for negative or error conditions. The focus is only on the valid and positive inputs through which application generates the expected output. Application functionality and modules should be independent enough to test separately.

This is done by programmers or by testers. Modules are typically code modules, individual applications, client and server applications on a network, etc. Load testing helps to find the maximum capacity of the system under specific load and any issues that cause the software performance degradation. Monkey Testing is performed randomly and no test cases are scripted and it is not necessary to Monkey Testing is performed randomly and no test cases are scripted and it is not necessary to be aware of the full functionality of the system.

Manual Testing Concepts Material | Software Tester PDF

The change in the program source code is very minimal so that it does not impact the entire application, only the specific area having the impact and the related test cases should able to identify those errors in the system.

A negative testing technique is performed using incorrect data, invalid data or input. It validates that if the system throws an error of invalid input and behaves as expected. Hadoop automatically transfers tasks from machines that have failed to other machines. Economical : Use of commodity hardware along with the fault tolerance provided by Hadoop, makes it a very economical option for handling problems involving large datasets.

Flexible : Big data applications can different types of heterogeneous data like structured data, semi structured data and unstructured data.

It can process data extremely quickly due parallel processing of data. Each component of the system belongs to a different technology. The overheads and support involved in ensuring that the hardware and software for these projects run smoothly, is equally high. Logistical Changes — Organizations that want to use big data may have to modify how data flows into their systems.

They will have to adapt their systems to constant flow of data rather than in batches. This could translate to significant change to their existing IT systems. Skilled Resources — Testers and developers who work on big data project need to be highly technical and skilled at picking up new technology on their own. Finding and retaining highly skilled people can be a challenge.

Expensive — While big data promises use of low cost machinery to solve computing challenges, the human resources required in such projects are expensive. Data mining experts, data scientists, developers and testers required for such projects cost more than normal developers and testers.

Accuracy of Results — Extracting the right data and accurate results from the data is a challenge.

Example: Gmail can sometimes mark a legitimate email as spam. If many users mark emails from someone as spam, gmail will start marking all the emails from that sender, as spam.

Hadoop Architecture Hadoop is one of the most widely used frameworks in big data projects. Though testers may be interested in big data from a testing perspective, it is beneficial to have high level understanding of the Hadoop architecture. The above diagram shows the high level architecture of Hadoop. Hadoop is installed on client machines and they control the work being done by loading cluster data, submitting MapReduce jobs and configuring the processing of data.

They are also used to view results. All of these machines together form a cluster. There can be many clusters in the network. MasterNodes have two key responsibilities.

First, they handle distributed storage of data using NameNodes. Second, parallel processing of data MapReduce which is coordinated by JobTracker. Secondary NameNode acts as a backup NameNode.

Slave nodes form the bulk of the servers. They store and process the data. Each slave node has a DataNode and a TaskTracker. The DataNode is a slave of and receives instructions from the NameNodes and carries out storage of data as shown below. The TaskTracker is a slave to and receives instructions from JobTracker. It processes the data using MapReduce which is a two step process.

The workflow of Map process is shown below. The sequence of events of the Reduce process is shown below. It is used for distributed processing and storage of large datasets using clusters of machines.

It can scale from one server to thousands of servers. It provides high availability using cheap machines by identifying hardware failures and handling them at application level. MapReduce — MapReduce is programming model for parallel processing of large data sets Hive — Apache Hive is data warehouse software that is used for working with large datasets stored in distributed file systems HiveQL — HiveQL is similar to SQL and is used to query the data stored in Hive.

Manual Testing Tutorial for Beginners: Concepts, Types, Tool

HiveQL is suitable for flat data structures only and cannot handle complex nested data structures. Pig Latin can be used to handle complex nested data structures. Pig Latin is statement based and does not require complex coding. Commodity Servers — When working with big data, you will come across terms like Commodity Servers. This refers to cheap hardware used for parallel processing of data.

This processing can be done using cheap hardware since the process is fault tolerant. If a commodity server fails while processing an instruction, this is detected and handled by Hadoop. Hadoop will assign the task to another server. This fault tolerance allows us to use cheap hardware. Node — Node refers to each machine where the data is stored and processed. Big data frameworks like Hadoop allow us to work with many nodes.

Nodes may have different names like DataNode, NameNode etc. DataNodes — This are the machines which are used to store data and process the data.

NameNodes — NameNode is the central directory of all the nodes.

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